Sunday, July 16, 2017

Twill Shawls

I was browsing through my yarn stash in early April and stopped to admire the large quantity of Malibrigo wool sock yarns that had been collecting over the past few years.  Each time my local Ben Franklin had a sale, I picked up a new skein.  They are wonderful yarns with so much color it makes my heart sing when I look at them.  (Which is exactly why I bought them in the first place).  I started laying the yarns out  to see how the colors meshed and then added some more sock yarns from my stash that I had dyed and others that a friend had dyed (Wooly Daisy).  Shawls, I thought.  Big woolen shawls with loads of color.

The first thing was the design and since there were so many colors, I opted for twill blocks.  A three block profile was established and this gave me the option of weaving off the blocks with different treadling sequences. 

After carefully weighing the yarns or seeing what yardages were on each skein,  My calculations told me I had enough yarn for 12 yards at 28" wide and I plotted out the color stripes, keeping in mind how many yards of wool I had in each color.

As I started winding the warp on the beam, I found that some of the yarns had more elasticity to them than others.  Warning bells went off in my head.  This would mean that after these yarns were released from tension, they would contract differently than the others, leaving ripples in the finished cloth.  I had to pull off some of my stripes (sectional warping made it possible) and actually buy more yarn to fill in the spaces.  My original stripe plan was altered as I warped - for better or worse, who knew?

I devised several drafts to fit the striping and added a basketweave selvedge to the edges.  I thought that I could do some shawls with blocks of broken twill and some with straight four thread twills.  Because each block of twill requires four shafts, the main body of the shawls required 12 shafts with another four shafts for the selvedge. (16 shafts in all).

Once the loom was warped, I wondered what color weft should I use to unify the dizzying array of color stripes?  I found some nice dark teal wool, a meadow green (the cone said it was cashmere - I'm not convinced) and finally some nubby silk that I dyed in a dark purple blue.

I hoped that I would have enough warp for four shawls, but sometimes my block sequence begged for a bit longer piece, so I wove them out at close to 100" more or less.  Big shawls that make a bold statement when worn.
I look at the shawls draped on my mannequin and wonder if the orange stripes aren't a bit too bright for the rest of the warp.  The red seems OK, but the orange?  Well, it is what it is.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Basket weave selvedges for 8 shaft looms

I've been a big fan of basket weave selvedges ever since I was introduced to them by fellow weaver and friend, Sandra Rude.  They work most easily with multishaft looms and liftplans.  However, they can be added to other weaving drafts and this post is to let you know how that can be done.

The reason for using a basket weave selvedge is to keep your edges neat and even and to avoid having to use floating selvedge threads.  Their beauty is that as you throw the shuttle back and forth, your weft catches the edge thread of your woven piece on each throw.  Another reason for using the basket weave selvedge, rather than just a plain weave selvedge (using only two shafts) is that plain weave selvedges take up differently than your main pattern and will give you a ruffled edge, whereas basketweave seems to truck along nicely at the same take up as the rest of your piece.  One of the pitfalls in using this treatment on everything you weave is that it uses up four of your precious shafts. 

The very first thing you need to think about when trying to add this selvedge treatment is that a basket weave selvedge  not only needs four extra shafts, but four picks as well.  The biggest mistake that I have made is thinking I have four shafts for my pattern and four shafts for the selvedge.  But, if I am weaving with a point treadling my sequence will be 1-2-3-4-3-2 which has six picks.  I can manage to weave this if I have a table loom and put my draft into a liftplan or I might be able to work out a more complicated treadling sequence with my floor loom, but it's going to be awkward. Everything needs to end up with a treadling sequence that is a multiple of four so in my example above, the minimum treadling sequence is going to be 12 (which is divisible by 6 - the pattern treadling and 4 the selvedge treadling). 

Once you have decided that your pattern choice is going to work and you are going to proceed, it becomes more straight forward.  I usually put my selvedge threads on the last four shafts, but when working with a multishaft loom, sometimes I put them on the front four shafts for easier repairs should a warp thread break. (This was a tip given by Allen Fannin on Weavetech many years ago).

The example below shows the threads on the last four shafts which have been colored blue in the warp. (Half the threads are on the right side and the other half are on the left side.)  I have used five threads to make the floats smaller between the interior pattern and the selvedge threads, but you can just use four on each side if you like.  Notice the tie up on the last four shafts.  In this example the treadling is a repeat of 8, so the tie up for the basket weave is repeated twice.  Also, the threading for this example makes it necessary  that you start throwing your shuttle from the right side.  You can see that if you started throwing from the left side, you wouldn't pick up the edge thread and nothing would work right after that!  I always keep my selvedge threads in this threading configuration so that I always throw my shuttle on the first pick at the right side of the warp.

The best description of selvedge treatments (that I have found) is in the book Handloom Weaving Technology by Allen Fannin.  It is on pages 264 & 265. The book is fairly technical, but does have other things that will interest handweavers.  If you are interested, used copies are fairly inexpensive. 

After this post was published, another weaver friend pointed out that Peggy Osterkamp discusses the same topic in her book Weaving and Drafting Your Own Cloth on pages 88 & 89.  She refers to this selvedge treatment as "tape selvedges"  and also 2/2 hopsack weave. Peggy's book is crammed with information for weavers and would make a good addition to your weaving library.

Saturday, March 11, 2017

Experiment with Chenille

Recently I dyed some beige rayon chenille with magenta, reds and blues.  The dyeing process is something I learned in a Kathrin Weber class about a year ago and she calls it "cupcake" dyeing.  Simply put, I dyed the yarn while it was still in center pull balls, thus giving me a variegated yarn.
Chenille is lovely stuff, but can be troublesome once woven.  It tends to "worm" in weave structures that have longer floats and many weavers just end up using plain weave rather than risk the piece turning into a bumpy mess after wet finishing.  I decided to experiment with my variegated chenille, using a weave structure with the chenille mostly showing on one side and the other side predominantly showing the 8/2 blue rayon warp, sett at 20 epi.
There is lots of color variation in the scarf as you can see from the photos below.  The middle fabric photo is a close up of the chenille side and also the warp face side so that you can see the color differences. Notice also the neat little pattern on the blue side of the scarf.
I wet finished the piece and put it in the dryer to make sure that worming wasn't going to be a problem.  It wasn't and I'm satisfied that the fabric will be stable and I can use this technique for future projects.

Should you want to weave your own scarves, the draft is shown below.  The chenille weft is the thicker thread and a finer thread that weaves on shafts 2 and 4 is in orange.  (I used a maroon fine weft to go with the chenille colors, but used orange in the draft so that you could see the structure more clearly).
I also used six treadles to keep my place in the pattern more easily.  Thick, thin, thick, thick, thin, thick.

This last draft is just the reverse side of the draft above.  See how the blue warp is the predominant color on this side.

Sunday, October 2, 2016

Squeezing the Numbers to Design a Weaving Draft

When mathematicians become interested in weaving, the first thing they turn to are ways to express weaving design using the tools they already know so well.  It works in reverse too.  Weavers start using numerical sequences, algebraic equations and more to make their weaving more interesting and give it a new dimension. 

The first mathematical sequence I learned to use in weaving (well, in knitting too) was a stripe generator called the Fibonacci Sequence.  For years, I used the first numbers in the sequence, not even thinking that maybe I only needed to use just a portion to make interesting designs.  Instead of starting with 0,1,1,1,2,3  maybe I could cut to 3,5,8,13 or just leave it at 3.5.8.  It really only occurred to me recently that I didn't need to reserve the sequence for stripes - it could be also used for profile drafts.  3 - 5 - 8.  Reverse it for a symmetry, add color and you have a fine piece to work from. Another trick to change the look of this profile - change the tie up box and see what happens.

When you start looking for these ideas, they seem to just pop out of the woodwork.  I was taking a trip around my Handwoven magazine collection, seeing what I could find in the way of interesting designs for towels.  I ran across an article in Jan/Feb 1998 called Algebraic Expressions:  Design for Weaving written by Lana Schneider. She described a method of design developed by a math teacher called Ada K. Dietz in 1946.  Ada used algebraic equations to create profile drafts, color sequences and even thread by thread sequences for weaving.  Wouldn't it be wonderful if I could actually read Ada's work?  Turns out, the PDF file is available from the and it's a free download.
Well, this was just too good to be true.  It seems Ada instinctively knew that many of us had forgotten what we once knew about the square or cube of a binomial.  She spelled it out for us and gave us some examples showing how she used (a + b)²  The breakdown is in her article, so you don't need to sweat out her procedure all by yourself.  The Handwoven article is nice and tidy and easier to read, so if you have access to that, use it.
After reading the document about Ada's work, I jotted down  the letter sequences to use in a variety of experiments.  The draft above was based on the cube of a binomial.  (a + b)³.  When broken down to its most basic form it becomes aaa + aabaabaab + abbabbabb + bbb regroup aaaaa b aa b aa b a bb a bb a bbbbb  (24 units).  I used this sequence as the basis for my twill tie up and then used the sequence again for color in the warp and weft. Once you have pulled the sequences out of Ada's work, you can experiment with a variety of ways to use them.
Here is the square of a trinomial represented in a profile draft with colors following the sequence as well.  (a + b + c)²    aa + abab + acac +  bb + bcbc + cc 18 units
Then, on to Pascal's triangle.  It's fun to google these topics because you come up with  great tutorials for kids (and adults) .  Here is a good one about Pascal's triangle.  I used the fifth row of numbers in Pascal's Triangle for blocks ( 1-4-6-4-1), then mirrored that configuration in the warp.  For the weft, I used the fourth row of numbers (1-3-3-1) and mirrored it as well.  Here is one possible profile draft.  Others can be created by changing the tie-up.
These drafts are similar to those built on words.  They are a means to an end and if you don't particularly like what you have created, you can always tweek it to make it more pleasing.  Using this technique for design does help to break down barriers and gets your brain moving in the right direction.  Start with one of these math equations or numerical sequence ideas, expand it  and go from there into something uniquely your own.

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Floating selvedges that break

A couple of months ago at a weaver's meeting, someone asked the group  for a solution to a floating selvedge that was constantly breaking.  In the back of my mind, I remembered a paper that Alice Schlein had written about the subject for the Complex Weavers CADE study group, but couldn’t really recall the details well enough to give an answer at that time.  As these things go, I had a warp with floating selvedges on my loom and the one on the right side started unplying and breaking frequently.  I looked up my copy of Alice’s article and found that she has a pretty good answer to the problem and one that you aren’t going to find with a Google search.

Alice explains that when your shuttle goes over a plied thread, it either increases or decreases the twist.  If you decrease the twist enough, it eventually frays and breaks.  The solution Alice proposed  is to determine whether your selvedge thread has been plied S or Z.  Most commercial yarns are plied S and you can check yours with a hand magnifier if necessary.  If your yarn has been plied S, you will pass your shuttle over both floating selvedges when your shuttle travels from left to right and under both of them on the return trip from right to left.  If your floating selvedge yarn is plied Z, then you reverse these instructions by going under both floaters from left to right and over when you throw the shuttle right to left. 

It takes a bit of time to learn this technique of going over or under both threads, but after you have practiced a while, everything falls into place and your selvedges look better too.

While doing my online research about this subject, I found that many people recommended a temple, which helps if there is too much draw in from your reed to the fell line. But I am firmly convinced that Alice's explanation is really the answer to selvedge breakage on one side of your warp.

Reference: Schlein, Alice. "The Selvedge Dilemma: Dealing with Breakage" Complex Weavers Computer Aided Design Exchange. October, 2003

Monday, March 28, 2016

Obsession with Braided Twills

In a weaving group that I belong to, one of our members brought a braided twill scarf for show and tell. Warp and weft were the same color, so the design was subtle, but very beautiful.  It started me on a search for simple braided twills that could be woven on four or eight shafts.  I have found a few and will add to this collection as I find more.
Here's a lovely four shaft version
I found this one in Carol Strickler's book of 8 shaft drafts #355

This one, or something very similar also appears in Carol's book, but it is part of a gamp.  Here it is using 10 treadles.

This draft is quite lovely and again only uses 10 treadles.

The advantage to this draft is that it is on a straight draw threading and straight treadling. I tried a treadling advance of four with this tie up which is shown below.

Unfortunately, this increased the float length to 6 in the warp direction.  Still, it might be nice in fine threads.

Sunday, February 28, 2016

Igor's Japanese Inspired Shawl

The Reno Fiber Guild is doing a year long study of Japanese Textiles.  Igor Raven started out with the idea of weaving a furoshiki (Japanese wrapping cloth) but wanted enough warp to weave a shawl too.  The furoshiki is still waiting to be hemmed, but the shawl has made it through the many layered process and is now a reality. 
The first step was to choose a draft.  The has drafts from the Japanese book,  Orimono Soshiki Hen by Yoshida, Kiju which was published in 1903.  Igor chose draft 44385.  He wanted some gold threads in his piece, so he added another two shafts to the original draft for some plain weave stripes in metallic.  Also, there are 10 plain weave threads on each selvedge to form a border.

Igor's main warp stripes were 10/2 Tencel in bronze and red.  The metallic was a 20/3 thread (incidentally made in Japan) and he used two gold warp threads as one in the stripe between the pattern blocks.

He had planned the warp for 24 epi and a total of 611 threads plus 2 for floating selvedges (weighted separately).  That was 7 pattern repeats and would have used the full width of the special 26" reed for his Baby Wolf loom.  After he started weaving, it became apparent that the sett should be closer, so he resleyed the reed at 25 epi - thus losing that extra width he had planned on.


The weft yarns were two shades of lavender used in alternating shots - also 10/2 Tencel. These colors add an iridescent quality to the cloth when it catches the light at different angles.

Before washing the cloth the fringe was cut to 7 inches and twisted with seed beads added. Washing was by hand in hot water, wrapped in towels and then dried flat.

 It's a luxurious shawl - long and very fluid.  The beads in the fringe catch the light and sparkle.  A successful piece.
A little addendum to this post.  Igor's shawl won the best of the handwoven division at the Nevada County Fair (August 2016).